The product of a typical unit of mechanical granulation is 65% rubber (the maximum, since tires in Greece are very worn) which is directed to various rubber product applications, 20% wire which is directed to the steel industry for recycling, and about 15% textiles and residues which is currently either used for energy recovery or it ends up in landfills. Used tire recycling product applications cover a wide range of materials depending on the crumb rubber or rubber powder size, as well as the degree of purity of the material.
Among others, tire bales can be used in the construction of breakwaters and dams, or river and stream beds and slopes. Wherever there are unstable conditions, tire bales are an alternative solution that replace a series of conventional material such as stone constructions, cement, gravel and protecting sandbags.
More and more governments require the use of soundproofing panels / embankments to reduce the noise alongside large roads, especially when these go through residential areas. The noise may be reduced with the use of whole tires or with crumb rubber as filling material in special panel constructions.
Lightweight fill material as a road sub-base
Tire shreds are recommended as light filling material for use in many applications, among which is the construction of road sub-base; this application is especially indicated for areas where the subsoil is loose and unstable. The smaller the dimensions of the items, the higher the durability of the road to traffic and the total weight of the overhead structure.
Construction of a drainage layer in new landfills
The shredded tire provides very good drainage, which depends on the degree of compression as well as the distribution of shred sizes. Also, the qualitative features of the leachates produced by the use of the tires are not affected by the operation of the landfills. In contrast to conventional materials, clogging is largely avoided. This use is already widespread in several EU countries.
Construction of a biogas expansion zone and a rainwater drainage zone in restorations of illegal dumps and Landfills
In the present application, as well as in the construction of a leachate collection layer in new Landfills, shredded tire is used alternatively to gravel so much in the construction of biogas expansion zones as in the rainwater collection layers in restoration projects for illegal dumps and Landfills, with very good results. This use is already widespread in several EU countries.
Shreds can be used as thermal insulating material in roadworks, pipe / drain digging, as filling material, in building construction as well as commercial and industrial constructions. They are used in replacement of traditional insulating materials such as XPS, lightweight aggregates such as LECA (expandable argillaceous inert material), fly ash from thermal power plants and metal rust, materials which have approximately the same properties as tire shreds.
Crumb rubber for sports facilities, recreation areas
Crumb rubber modified asphalt
Crumb rubber can be incorporated in the asphalt mixture in two different methods, the wet process and the dry process. In the wet process the crumb rubber functions as a modifier of the asphalt, while in the dry process crumb rubber is used instead of the inert material. In both cases the crumb rubber is mentioned as CRM because its use modifies the properties of the final hot asphalt mix. Rubber as an asphalt mix modifier is an economical way to improve the properties of the asphalt. In particular, less rutting has been recorded in modified asphalt during summer months as a result of high temperatures, as well as less cracking in the winter months due to low temperatures.
An important improvement in the properties of modified asphalt is also noted in the case of heavy traffic with a reduction in asphalt cracking by 164% following 2000 vehicle passes.
Show soles can be produced from a variety of different materials, among which are leather, latex, polyurethane, rubber, crumbs and powder. The material can be used for the construction either of one single sole or for parts of it. The parts can be sewn or stuck together and stuck thermally with the shoe’s main body. In most cases, the end of life tire soles are knit or bonded to the main body.
The usual procedure of mixing end of life tire powder or crumb with polyurethane to produce rubber mats, tiles and flooring usually results in end products that have relatively low tensile and shear strength and high rates of wear from the friction of the material.
The rubber powder that has been modified on the surface has many common features with most traditional materials and a very well structured surface. The material also facilitates the development of bonds with adjacent materials in the process of vulcanization, thus creating a hard and stable final product.